Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Project Based Management FREP Handheld Business - Professor Notes

Question: Discuss about the Project Based Management for FREP Handheld Business. Answer: Introduction This essay depicts the critical analysis of a chosen business case namely as FREP Handheld Business Case. The essay illustrates the reason behind the development of the business structure. During the project development phase, cost benefit analysis is made to understand whether the business is commercially beneficial or not. In order to develop the organizational structure and business framework, different improvement oriented business cases are determined by different organization. It has been found that, in most of the cases frequent adaptation of wrong business cases are declining the revenue growth of the business. Before implementation of a project in the real world application, proper budget estimation and reason behind the project implementation is needed to be understood, by the development team (Nolan and Lang 2015). The design approach, information system, training and development programs arranged for the employees working on a particular project, helps to reduce the cost efficiency and ongoing running cost of the project (Hou et al. 2016). The essay demonstrates the viability of FREP Handheld Business Case. It has been found that particularly for FREP, there are certain features that might drive the typical investment oriented to handheld and the features missing from FREP business are as follows: Critical analysis on FREP Handheld Business Case During analysis of FREP Handheld Business Case it has been found that, the business case helps to improve the existing business composition, through developing a project based on the requirements of the consumers (Geddes et al. 2016). The business case provides many decision making tools which helps to take appropriate decision for the commercial growth of the organization on the other hand, the total budget estimated for developing a project, is based on the long term and short term view of the total cost savings tools. During developing the project for FREP Handheld, the developers should focus on the incremental cash flow management process and also on the quantitative as well as qualitative valuation process (Zimmermann and Werner 2013). The most important component that is required to be focused by the development team is the risks that might occur during the development and execution of the project. The key components of the business case are business strategic development, risks analysis based on the decision making points. Addition of Information technology in the existing business needs huge investment (Liang et al. 2014). This particular business case is referred to as beyond the financial investment. For future sustainability and potential commercial growth, every individual feature of the handheld investment is considered. Background and environment of the project The FRPA (Forest and Range Practice Act) resource evaluation program based on FREP is referred to as an environmental control and monitoring program which is committed by the government of British council (Vinuesa and Contreras-Moreira 2015). The FREP business project will help to evaluate that all the activities associated business are meeting the pre determined objectives. The quality assurance management found that not even a single business approach is meeting the requirement of the business. In the public sectors also the quality management is measured (Meikle and King 2013). The project flow implies that the development is moving towards on the right track. Certain important factors such as strong leadership management, top level management commitment, training and development program are considered while developing the successful business project (Niemller et al. 2016). The main issue related to FREP is that it does not introduce any quality audit programs and safety devices. A conceptual framework is developed which is known as FREP quality assurance model. The model demonstrates the general process, links and the need of the program and project as well (Nagar and Suman 2014). The quality assurance criteria hold different project criteria in terms of development, monitor, control, and achievement. The QA can be expressed in the program level in terms of designing, planning, and business framework and business structure (Lee et al. 2013). The further implementation strategy of the organization will mainly focus on all the aspects of quality assurance. On the project level the quality control system is introduced for monitoring and control. In order to monitor and control data collection, management and analysis and reporting certain protocols are developed by the business process (Amato et al. 2015). It can be said that in order to improve the overall quality of a project, continuous development in quality assurance and control is needed to be adapted by the business process. Some quality tools such as self assessment, check sheet or score card, systematic diagram, cause and effect diagram are identified that are used to improve the quality of the project. Discussion on the project business case Definition of the project The project is developed to mitigate the issues that are continuously evolving in the business process. It can ensure the reliability and the scientific credibility by documentation of different quality metrics (Kshetri 2014). The function and purpose of the project are as follows: Functions Purpose of FREP Conformance 1. To enhance the reliability, flexibility, scientific credibility of the business process. 2. To reach the quality control target determined for every individual area of the project (Lonner et al. 2015). 3. To achieve the regional data consistency. 4. To increase the accountability for the stakeholders and public as well (Zimmermann and Werner 2013). Improvement 1. Helps to determine the quality metrics 2. Performance can be improved 3. Enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of the project. 4. Reach the quality control target determined for every individual area of the project (Swenson 2013) 5. Helps to increase the accountability for the stakeholders and public as well. 6. Provides protection to the program so that no such unwanted changes could occur. Costa and waste reduction 1. It will reduce the cost, redundancy and waste (Lonner et al. 2015). 2. Provide protection to the programs avoid sudden changes 3. The values of the resources get maximized. The components of the project are as follows: FREP components Activities Indicators QA metrics Business tools FREP team 1. Reference terms 2. Members of team 3. Project lead 1. Reference terms 2. Representative of the target stakeholder Publishing FREP web Roles and responsibility of the matrices and process flowchart. EE project 1. Project plan and charter 2. Training for the members Website publish Team monitoring and control RSM 1. Project plan 2. Project management training Communication 1. Official website 2. Report 3. Industry 4. Public 5. Protocols 6. Meetings 7. Stakeholders 1. Information and document update 2. Focus test Sheet checking Budget Value of the money Involvement of the stakeholders Process of consultation Particularly for this project the sponsors are divided into four different key groups. Different data are required to be collected by the data collection tea members (Lindman, Kinnari and Rossi 2014). Then analysis of those data will help to select which of the data set are valuable and which data sets are not. The MoFR information management Group plays the role of system implementation and in the workplace proper evaluation and integration of the collected data is done by the sponsors (Nolan and Lang 2015). On the other hand, the external users or the license providers are another group of sponsor for the FREP project. Evaluation of the project business case In order to evaluate the FREP Quality Assurance Framework certain phases are needed to be maintained by the development team. However, proper management of implementation strategies, monitoring and control methodologies should be adapted to achieve best practices for the project (Meikle and King 2013). Many protocols are developed while implementing the business model of FREP. The in the initial phase the environmental management system is considered and then proper auditing practices are used to guide the management process. It will validate the external stakeholders and management system as well. Though, this step is costly and time taken as well. Formal external recognition is needed to be adapted to mitigate the issues (Nagar and Suman 2014). Statistical process control process should be developed to achieve continuous improvement and principle practices. Cost Benefits analysis In order to implement the business process cost benefit analysis is required to be done so that a balanced can be maintained between the investment and the return from the business or the organization can get commercial benefit from the competitive market place (Vinuesa and Contreras-Moreira 2015). The cost benefit analysis is nothing but the feasibility study for this project. The feasibility study helps to measure whether the business is commercially beneficial or not (Kurnia, Karnali and Rahim 2015). If the business outcome implies that the project is not beneficial then further additional technologies will be added to the existing business process. Tangible Benefits Category In $US Reduced cost $ 160,000.00 Reduced error cost $ 80,000.00 Enhanced flexibility $ 40,000.00 enhancement in the activity speed $ 40,000.00 planning and control cost $ 19,000.00 Rest $ - Total Tangible Benefits $ 339,000.00 Tangible One-Time Costs Category In $US Complete improvement cost $ 170,000.00 Adaptive hardware cost $ 37,000.00 Adaptive software Cost $ 60,000.00 Cost estimated for training and development $ 1,800.00 website development cost $ 2,000.00 Rest $ 2,000.00 Total Tangible One-Time Costs $ 272,800.00 Tangible Recurring Costs Category In $US Maintenance cost $ 15,000.00 Data storage cost $ 1,200.00 Communication cost $ 1,600.00 line cost for hardware and software $ 1,500.00 Suppliers cost $ 1,000.00 Rest $ 1,500.00 Total Tangible Recurring Costs $ 21,800.00 In order to develop the entire project, from the project initiation up to completion of the project a minimum 6 months needed (Lindman, Kinnari and Rossi 2014). Data collection their analysis and evaluation in an organized manner will lead to proper execution of the project in the real world application. Before implementation of a project exact time management is needed to be followed so that after project implementation the consumers feel satisfied with the service served by the service providers. On the other hand it can be said that, information technology rather technological advances are the main factor that can mitigate the different data oriented risks that generally interrupt the genuine flow of the business process. Adaptation of digital platform will provide proper data management. Factors Time required Feasibility study in terms of cost benefit analysis 4 to 5 days Audit or budget estimation 2 to 3 days Statistical management control system 5 to 6 days Environmental control management system 4 to 5 days Continuous improvement of the handheld project 5 to 6 days External recognition 4 to 5 days Internal recognition 4 to 5 days Preventive approach 8 to 10 days Conclusion From the overall discussion it can be concluded that the main requirement of the business case is to identify the risks that might hamper the exact flow of the project in an organization. During migration of the system from one platform to another, risks have been occurred. Delay in the normal schedule flow, are interrupted due to the staffing of resources. Inconsistencies in the contractors are another risk that interrupts the genuine data collection and data analysis process. Loss of meaningful data will create dissatisfaction among the consumers as they will not be able to gain their desired resultants. Lack of proper training and development programs will lead to system failure. Therefore all the members who are associated to the project development team must provide proper commitment. In order to mitigate these issues the FREP project team has adapted certain business structure and model as well so that the issues can be mitigated easily. On the other hand, handheld project are found to be much beneficial than the non handheld business cases. Therefore, complex data are captured from various resources relocate the impact of the project success. References Amato, K.R., Leigh, S.R., Kent, A., Mackie, R.I., Yeoman, C.J., Stumpf, R.M., Wilson, B.A., Nelson, K.E., White, B.A. and Garber, P.A., 2015. The gut microbiota appears to compensate for seasonal diet variation in the wild black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra).Microbial ecology,69(2), pp.434-443. Geddes, J.R., Hockett, H.E., Quirk, A.J. and Whetstone, K.R., INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION, 2016.TECHNOLOGY FOR STALL DETECTION. U.S. Patent 20,160,004,577. Hou, F., Gao, T., Liu, T., Jia, Z., Liu, Y., Sun, C. and Liu, X., 2016. Identification of 10 transcripts of FREP in penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.Fish Shellfish Immunology,58, pp.436-441. Kshetri, N., 2014.Global entrepreneurship: environment and strategy. Routledge. Kurnia, S., Karnali, R.J. and Rahim, M.M., 2015. A qualitative study of business-to-business electronic commerce adoption within the Indonesian grocery industry: a multi-theory perspective.Information Management,52(4), pp.518-536. Lee, G.W., Na, S.H., Kim, K.H. and Huh, E.N., 2013. Smart Home and Cloud Interworking System (SHCI) Architecture Design for a Cloud broker based Smart Home Environment.International Journal of Advancements in Computing Technology,5(12), p.441. Liang, F., Feng, C., Lu, X. and Xu, Z., 2014, March. Performance benefits of DataMPI: a case study with BigDataBench. InWorkshop on Big Data Benchmarks, Performance Optimization, and Emerging Hardware(pp. 111-123). Springer International Publishing. Lindman, J., Kinnari, T. and Rossi, M., 2014, January. Industrial open data: case studies of early open data entrepreneurs. In2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences(pp. 739-748). IEEE. Lonner, J.H., Smith, J.R., Picard, F., Hamlin, B., Rowe, P.J. and Riches, P.E., 2015. High degree of accuracy of a novel image-free handheld robot for unicondylar knee arthroplasty in a cadaveric study.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research,473(1), pp.206-212. Meikle, P. and King, S.A., 2013. Cross Border Community Research, Opportunities and Challenges: Case Study Analyses.Delta Journal of Education,3(2) Nagar, N. and Suman, U., 2014. Architectural Comparison and Implementation of Cloud Tools and Technologies.International Journal of Future Computer and Communication,3(3), p.153. Niemller, C., Metzger, D., Fellmann, M., zcan, D. and Thomas, O., 2016. Shaping the Future of Mobile Service Support SystemsEx-Ante Evaluation of Smart Glasses in Technical Customer Service Processes.Informatik. Nolan, D. and Lang, D.T., 2015.Data Science in R: A Case Studies Approach to Computational Reasoning and Problem Solving. CRC Press. Swenson, K.E., 2013.Humans on display: searching for purpose among museum exhibits featuring live humans(Doctoral dissertation). Vinuesa, P. and Contreras-Moreira, B., 2015. Robust Identification of Orthologues and Paralogues for Microbial Pan-Genomics Using GET_HOMOLOGUES: A Case Study of pIncA/C Plasmids.Bacterial Pangenomics: Methods and Protocols, pp.203-232. Zimmermann, J. and Werner, J.R., 2013. Mimetic Isomorphism: Crisis as a Driver of Change and Convergence. InRegulating Capitalism?(pp. 119-131). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Sexual Harassment And Rape Essays - Rape, Date Rape, Types Of Rape

Sexual Harassment And Rape Sexual Harassment and Rape Cheryl, sixteen, trainer for her high-school girls volleyball team and photographer for the school newspaper, arrived at the gym at about 9:00 Saturday for a volleyball tournament. She left her purse and equipment with friends while she went to the restroom. When the game started and she hadnt returned to the teams bench, her friends went to look for her. Her raped body was found behind some stage backdrops on the balcony of the school auditorium(Booher 12). Sexual harassment and rape are prevalent in all aspects of society. Sexual harassment is unwelcome behavior of a sexual nature that makes someone feel uncomfortable or unwelcome by focusing attention on their gender (http://www.de.psu.edu/harassment/whatif/). There are many different forms of sexual harassment including sexual comments, jokes, gestures, looks, pictures, photos, illustrations, messages, and rumors. Other forms such as calling gay or lesbian, spy on people dressing, flash or moon, touch or grab sexually, pull at clothes, corner in sexual way, or force to do something sexual are also forms of sexual harassment(Parrot 2). Statistics show that eighty-one percent of teens, ages thirteen to eighteen, have been sexually harassed in school alone. In school the number of teens who are sexually harassed are astounding. Eighty-five percent of female teen are sexually harassed in school, which is slightly higher then the seventy-six percent of male teens harassed(3). One in ever four girls, and one in every seven boys, are sexually harassed on a daily basis(Cooney 18). There are many myths about sexual harassment that causes people to stereotype potential attackers. Eighty percent of the time the sexual abuser is someone known and trusted by the victim(13). In father-daughter and father-son sexual abuse, the natural father is most likely to be the abuser(14). The sexual abusive parent is usually considered a model citizen(16). The victim is never at fault in sexual abuse(15). Rape is forced sexual intercourse against the will of the victim(Valle 58). There are five main types of rape, acquaintance, date, marital, soft, and gang rape(Parrot 18). Rape can happen to both males and females although in most cases the female is the victim(Cooney 39). Acquaintance rape is forced intercourse, or other sexual act, that occurs between two people who know each other. This could be a date, teacher/student, friend of the family, employer/employee, husband/wife, doctor/patient, friend. Date rape is only one form of acquaintance rape(Parrot 18). Date rape is forced sexual intercourse, or other sexual act, that occurs between a dating couple or while on a date(Parrot 18). Most date rapes are not reported because the victim feels in some way that it is their fault. They may think that because they were flirting heavily that they lead the rapist on and made them think that they wanted to have sex. Any type of forced intercourse is rape(Shuker-Haines 47). Marital rape is forced sexual intercourse, or other sexual act, that occurs between husband and wife. Some states do not legally recognize this as rape. Even in states where marital rape is against the law it is impossible to obtain a conviction unless the couple are separated or divorced or unless some other form of violence such as assault and battery accompanies the rape(Parrot 18). Soft rape is forced sexual intercourse, or other sexual act, in which coercion, pressure or intimidation, or threat of coercion is used to gain the victims compliance. Another definition is when one is forced into a sexual act by duress, verbal threats of harm, during intoxication, or using date rape drugs, basically, rape without physical force(http://www.crosswinds.net/~castlesintheair/boughtandsold/slinkyredthing.html). There is not a lot of information about soft rape because it is rarely reported. Gang rape is forced sexual intercourse by more then on assailant. This is common in gang initiations where the new comer is rape by the entire gang. This is also common in prisons to establish ranks between inmates. The effects on a victim of rape are extreme. Victims of rape are hurt by three things, the rape itself, their own doubts about what happened, and by the doubts of others about what happened(Shuker-Haines 13). Victims of rape my become severely depressed, overeat, anorexic, suicidal, or self-mutilating. There are four major signs that a women gives when she is not will to have sex. The

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

What is Schizophrenia

Table of Contents Introduction What is Schizophrenia Studies on the Disorder Treatment Options The Success of Treatment Options Conclusion Reference List Introduction Many different psychological disorders that have been discovered in the medical world tend to afflict human beings thus affecting their day-to-day activities. Psychological disorders come in different ways. At the same time, they are tackled in different ways that can be described as the best in the present-day world of medicine.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on What is Schizophrenia? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some psychological disorders can be described as acquired while some can be described as genetic depending on their manifestation in the human beings. The treatment and management of these disorders also vary, with some of the disorders being treatable and eliminated completely while some can only be controlled but not elimi nated. Different approaches are employed when dealing with psychological disorders. In fact, although different people can be diagnosed with the same disorder, they will show different signs individually and hence the conclusion that psychological disorders show different indicators that make up a certain disorder when put together. As the study reveals, one such disorder that can be described as complex is schizophrenia because of the different ways it manifests in human being as well as the different forms it afflicts its victims. What is Schizophrenia Schizophrenia as a disease or mental disorder has been in existence for a very long time, as long as humans have existed. Previously, the classification of mental illnesses was so poor that almost all mental illnesses were lumped together without trying to sort them out (Sullivan, 2003, p. 1187). Way back in the year 1911, a Swiss doctor called Eugene Blair coined the name schizophrenia from two Greek words, ‘schizo’, m eaning split, and the word ‘phrene’, meaning mind, and hence the term schizophrenia that means a disconnected mind. The disease comes in different forms by exhibiting different characteristics specific to an individual case. In most cases, an individual would exhibit one or more of the following characteristics, which are pointers to the disease. They include delusions, which are strange and unrealistic beliefs that go on in an individual’s mind in that they tend to see things that other people are not seeing (Lilienfeld et al. 2010). The signs also include hearing of sounds other people cannot hear, and some strange beliefs that something is going to happen to the victims. The mind of the individual makes them have abnormal a feeling about their surrounding environment. They also have hallucinations, which will make them have a reaction of the presence of things that are actually not there. In this case, people will hear voices that are just in their minds, smel l things that are not there, and/or have different tastes from what is expected (Sullivan, 2003, p. 1189).Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The individuals will also exhibit strange behavior when viewed by normal people. The behavior that can be described as uncanny. In some cases, the individuals will have a very unsystematic dialogue in that a mature individual will not be able to make a sensible statement due to his or her mixing of different words. The speech of a mature person in this case can be described as that of a small child who is learning to talk. Some forms of schizophrenia come with disjointed and severely diminished cognitive abilities in that victims lose most of their mental faculties (Lilienfeld et al. 2010). In fact, they cannot therefore do any constructive thing. In some cases, the individual will not be in a position to do anything without being instruc ted on what do and how to do it. In case the victims have taken the initiative to do something, they will omit some steps, which make whatever they are doing appear odd (McGlashan, 1988, p. 516). Signs vary from one individual to the other as well as severity of the condition. Some persons can be described as being in a permanent state of the condition while others will oscillate between being fully normal and suffering from bouts of the disease. Schizophrenia strikes its victims in their late adolescence or in their early stages of adulthood although it is also known to strike anytime of an individual’s lifetime. The real cause of schizophrenia has never been pinpointed to date. However, experts are working on a theory that points it to be a result between biological predispositions, which are genetic in nature and the environment in which one grows up (Daly, 2013, p. 716). This claim is the line of research that researchers are slowly developing with the belief that it will give answers to the question of its origin. Another cause for schizophrenia can be drug abuse. Effects of drug abuse can lead to the impairment of the cognitive functions of the brain in that the victim will start behaving abnormally due to hallucinations and delusions. Pregnancy has also been listed as another cause of schizophrenia, with different elements during a woman’s pregnancy acting as a trigger for the same. Schizophrenia comes in different levels such that some types of schizophrenia can be described as acute while others can be described as mild (Sullivan, 2003, p. 1189). People with schizophrenia can have lucid moments in that sometimes they are fully normal with their mental functions being performed in order. However, in some other times, they are very schizophrenic.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on What is Schizophrenia? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Studies on the Disorder Sci entists have conducted different major studies across the world as they try to find the main causes of schizophrenia as well as solutions to the problem. The biggest challenge that many studies have faced has been the inability to pin point exactly what causes the problem because finding the cause would lead to better solutions to the problem. The manifestation of the disease is what makes it a big challenge to researchers who are trying to find its exact cause. One of the challenges is that schizophrenia has so many different symptoms. In this case, only when they are put together that the person can be rightly diagnosed as suffering from the disease (Meltzer, 2002, p. 280). Therefore, research in the field of schizophrenia is wide due to the width with which the schizophrenia problem comes. Each research has been narrowed down to a specific problem that the researchers think is the cause or they think might lead them to a solution. Broad Institute of Harvard, the MIT, and the Mass achusetts General Hospital have conducted one of the major studies on schizophrenia under the leadership of Mark Daly. The aim of the study was to find the genetic difference between people suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disease, and other unaffected people. The study involved over 10000 people suffering from schizophrenia, 7000 people suffering from bipolar, and a large number of unaffected people. The study was meant to narrow down genetic differences between the three groups as a way of pin pointing the genetic traits associated with schizophrenia. The study discovered 10 genetic risk factors that are highly associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Besides, it also discovered three specific genes that are suspected to be the cause of the two diseases (Daly, 2013, p.730). The study was meant to find a common link between schizophrenia and genes, which are usually transferable from one offspring to the other. Another study on schizophrenia, which is one of the man y studies on the same disease, was to find out the relationship between the disease, genetic traits, and the environment. The study found that the heritability liability of schizophrenia was 81%, which means that schizophrenia is a highly heritable disease arising due to genetic traits that can be inherited. 11% of the problem in victims was attributed to common and shared environment. The study came out with a conclusion that schizophrenia is highly influenced by genes and the environment although it does not show the cause of the disease. The study simply reinforces previous theories that point the origins of schizophrenia to both genes and the environment (Daly, 2013, p. 735). Another study by McGlashan (1988) found that schizophrenia, as a mental disease can be chronic to the extent that its effects become worse in relation to those of other known major mental illnesses.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In these findings, schizophrenia can lead to increased risks of suicide in its victims, instances of physical health, and cases of mortality. According to McGlashan (1988), the disease comes out in the open after a period of between 5-10 years after its manifestation meaning that it can remain unnoticed in an individual for some time, as it develops before it comes out evidently (p. 520). The study finds that long-term studies on the disease so far have not come up with any conclusion on the history of treatment of the disease, meaning that the treatment of the disease has not been concluded as effective. Studies on the disorder can be described as continuous because no authoritatively conclusive study has been made so far. Different theories on the disease continue to be studied while new theories also come up at the same time to try to find a solution. Therefore, any information so far being used in the field cannot be described as conclusive, but as part of a continuous study. Tr eatment Options One factor that underlies schizophrenia treatment is that it is a disease whose cause is not yet known and that it comes in different manifestations. This case therefore complicates the treatment regime that any physician has to offer because it is a trial and error at the end of the day. Every single schizophrenic case has to be approached individually because different victims have different symptoms besides having different combinations of symptoms (Meltzer, 2002, p. 280). This complication therefore restricts the physician to observe case by case in an effort to administer drugs according to their opinion on the individual case. The treatment methods commonly in the application are based on a clinical research that has been conducted on the disease as well as on the experience of the physician on the treatment of the disease. Usually, the approach that the physician will employ will depend on the ability of the strategy to reduce the effects and symptoms of the d isease as well as an approach that is believed will reduce the chances of the disease coming back. Treatment for the condition happens in two ways: medical treatment or psychosocial treatment (Sullivan, 2003, p. 1188). Medical treatment of the disease usually involves the use of antipsychotic medicine, which has been available since 1950s. These drugs are not known to cure the problem. Rather, they are known to reduce psychotic symptoms to allow the individual to behave like a normal person. So far, this treatment has been identified as the most effective. An experienced physician who specializes in mental cases can administer it. The choices of drugs and dosage are the prerogative of the physician because treatment is done on a case-by-case basis. Many schizophrenic cases as explained above differ in symptoms and intensity. Although psychotic medication has been known to work well for schizophrenic cases, it sometimes does not work in others in that patients may fail completely to respond to the drug thus making it useless to administer the said drug on them (Sullivan, 2003, p. 1189). Some patients will mildly respond to the drugs being administered. This case would require higher doses of the drug for them to be effective. Although it is effective in treating and managing schizophrenia, almost all anti psychotic drugs have negative side effects that might not be pleasant at all to the patient. Some of the commonly used drugs include Clozapine, which is registered as Clozaril. It has been touted as the best antipsychotic drug ever to be used. However, its use comes with severe side effects to the user of the drug with the development of agronulocytocis, which is a condition that diminishes white blood cells thus reducing the individual’s immunity. Risperidone is another drug that can be used to treat psychosis, which in this case is schizophrenia. The drug has fewer side effects compared to Clozapine. However, it is not as effective as Clozapine. Olaza pine is another antipsychotic drug that works like Risperidone but not as effective as Clozapine (Meltzer, 2002, p. 280). Many other drugs are still being developed. Thus, they are not yet in the market. On the other hand, other drugs that can be used in treating schizophrenia have been found to treat specific symptoms. Hence, they cannot be counted upon to treat other symptoms. This makes them less effective. Psychotherapy can also be used as treatment for schizophrenia in some cases through rehabilitation of the individual, family education, individual psychotherapy, and self-help groups. The use of psychotherapy can only be applicable in cases where the individuals respond to the treatment. The physician can only determine this treatment. Psychosocial therapy is mostly applied when the individual seems to have developed schizophrenia due to environmental influences. The Success of Treatment Options The success of treatment options for schizophrenia can only be stated in relative terms due to the manner in which the disease manifests itself and the stage the treatment for the disease has reached. So far, there is no cure for schizophrenia. The only available solution has been to tame the situation as the patient continues to use drugs. Many patients who have been diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia have had to live with the condition for the rest of their lives because it is not curable (Sullivan, 2003, p. 1191). The only solution that most of them have had with this condition is that some cases have been able to have the condition suppressed for a longtime without them relapsing. This far is the closest to cure to which patients with schizophrenia can come close. The biggest challenge that remains is that the disease comes in many different forms with either individual symptoms or a combination of symptoms. This case is a challenge because the psychiatrist has to deal with individual symptoms as they try to sort them because each symptom has its own d rug. A mixture of some of the drugs used can be dangerous to the patient. Therefore, in most cases, the patient is treated for one condition at a time. The use of more effective drugs such as Clozapine has other devastating effects on the patient. The drug is overly effective in its application. However, its side effects are dangerous as well. For instance, patients under Clozapine need to have their blood tested very often to check the white blood cells count because the drug tends to diminish the white cells (Meltzer, 2002, p. 280). Inadequate white cells mean that the body’s immune system will be lowered because they are responsible for the immune system of the body. Success in treatment options can be described as successful in individual cases where the patient has responded positively to the treatment. This varies with individual cases because there are those patients who will respond positively to the therapy while there are those who will not respond at all. Treatment of schizophrenia starts with a trial-and-error mode as the physician tries out different treatment plans for the individual. It takes some time before the physician figures out the exact plan for an individual patient. At the end of the day, the plan might work or fail (Daly, 2013, p. 750). Treatment options offered so far can be deemed successful as far as offering the best they can because that is the best that the industry can offer. They have been known to control the disease in an individual successfully. The only point that should be noted is that the disease never goes away and that the patient has to be on the lookout in case they relapse. This will force them to go back to treatment. On the other hand, some patients might have to be fully dependent on the drugs for them to behave normally because they might not look properly wired without the drugs. Whereas treatment has worked in some cases, it has failed completely to work for some patients in some other cases (Meltzer, 2002, p. 280). In these instances, patients have had to be confined in facilities that will allow them to be taken care of, or they have to be heavily sedated as a way of keeping them calm. These two methods can be punitive to the patient. However, at the same time, they can be the only available solutions to them. Conclusion Schizophrenia as a mental disorder continues to pose challenges to the medical world on the best solutions that can be found to take care of it. The challenge of finding its main cause remains large because there is still no solution ahead with the present-day technology. The complexity of the problem has made it worse by complicating its description in that it cannot be described by one or two words. So far, the only hope of finding the main cause of the problem lies with finding the exact genetic connection as well as the environmental connection to the problem. Reference List Daly, M. (2013). Genetics connection In Schizophrenia. Nature Genetics, 45(7), 715- 841. Lilienfeld, S. et al. (2010). Psychology: A Framework for Everyday Thinking. London: Pearson Publishers. McGlashan, T. (1988). A Selective Review of North American Follow Up Studies of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bullettin, 14(4), 515-542. Meltzer, H. (2002). Suicidality in Schizophrenia: A Review of the Evidence for Risk Factors Treatment Options. Current Psychiatry Reports, 4(4), 279-283. Sullivan, P. (2003). Schizophrenia as a Complex Trait Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of Twin. Jama Psychiatry, 60(12), 1187-1192. This research paper on What is Schizophrenia? was written and submitted by user Duncan Mccall to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Total Quality Management In Construction

Total Quality Management In Construction Free Online Research Papers The major new element in world market competition is quality. During the 1970?s and 1980?s, the Japanese and their U.S. companies demonstrated that high quality is achievable at lower costs and greater customer satisfaction. It was the result of using the management principles of total quality management (TQM). More and more U.S. companies have demonstrated that such achievements are possible Using TQM as a new way to manage. Such companies also found that they were recognized with everyone pulling in the same direction.Improvement had become a way of live. Improving competitive position and profit has always been the responsibility of management. Before the 1980?s, U.S. management was broadly successful. Until then the dominant management model was that of the autocrat.Management, primly senior management, decided how the business was to operate, including what the policies and objectives were; how it was organized; what jobs were established; and how should they be done. It was an unquestioned axiom that if everyone did what the upper management required, the business would be successful. Organizations are composed of the people in them and the managers who lead them. People respond strongly to leadership expectations and rewards. If they are given little power in their jobs, they have little interest in improving them. If leaders exhort the members for better output but reward (promotions, bonuses, recognition) for mostly higher output, they get the behavior they reward. Quantity over quality has been a common management philosophy in the United States. The first step in implementing TQM requires the an upper-management change in both philosophy and behavior. Managers must adopt the objectives of customer satisfaction and continuous improvement. They must implement the change to achieve these objectives through their personal and continuous involvement and in the reeducation of everyone in the organization in TQM principles and practices. The past philosophy of management can work reasonably well if a company dominates world markets. When markets become complex and worldwide with more and stronger competitors, a new model is needed. Asian companies and some in the United States have demonstrated that there is a more effective way to manage, quite different from the autocratic model: It is employee involvement in quality improvement. These companies also introduce high quality at lower cost as a competitive element, thereby changing the competitive equation for everyone. TQM is a way to continuously improve performance at every level of operation, in every functional area of an organization, using all available human and capital resources. Improvement is addressed toward satisfying board goals such as cost, quality, market share, schedule, and growth. It demands commitment and discipline, and an ongoing effort. The quality management process includes the integration of all employees, suppliers, and customers, within the corporate environment. It embraces two underlying tenets: Quality management is a capability which inherent in your employees. Quality management is a controllable process, not an accidental one. The idea of an integrated, human-orientated systems approach to management was successfully used by W. Edwards Deming in the 1950?s. Deming told the Japanese that they could become world-class leaders if they followed his advice and they did. He lectured top Japanese business leaders on statistical quality control. He proposed a system that would change the approach to management in many ways. Today, this system is the pillar of TQM philosophy. These components make up the strategic portion of the quality pyramid (figure. 1). There are mainly eight functional elements from which other concepts flow. These are: 1.Organizational vision Organizational vision provides the frame work that guides a firm?s believes and values. The gist of the corporate vision should be a simple, one sentence guide or motto that every employee knows, and more important, believes. If well crafted, the vision statement can serve through a torrent of change in product and service technology. T he strategic vision needs to consider both the external customer and the employees, but should lack a defining or differentiating phrase between them. For example, General Motors provides all employees a card with its strategic vision, including a cause-effect diagram that indicates the importance of team work (figure 2). Simply stating a vision is not enough. It needs to be demonstrated by the actions of the executives, managers , superiors, foremen, and individuals. It should be done continuously in all their actions and initiatives. Moreover, deliberation must be exercised in developing these goals and strategies. They must reflect the values and culture of the work force. While top-management commitment is essential, managers should realize when to lead and when to get out of the way. In a sense quality management is management from the bottom up. An atmosphere of responsibility must be created toward the customer for whatever product is produced or service is rendered (fig.3, below). Figure 3 Strategies in Successful Vision Implementation Demonstrate commitment. Inform suppliers. Maintain a constancy of purpose. Take a long-term view. Create more leaders. Establish meaningful goals. Examine your mission. Discuss TQM with peers. Behavior and action must be consistent with goal. Build awareness. 2. Barrier Removal It is inevitable that change will be resisted. In fact, a great deal of effort in quality management is expended in overcoming such resistance, usually by allowing change to come from individuals directly involved, rather from management. The whole idea of continuous improvement leads to continuous change. Some of these barriers are: ?. We know what they really want (without asking them). ?. Quality is not a major factor in decisions-low initial cost mentality prevails. ?. Creative accounting can increase corporate performance. ?. Can?t manufacture competitively at the low end. ?. The job of senior management is strategy, not operations. ?. Success is good, failure is bad. ?. If it isn?t broke, don?t fix it. ?. The key disciplines from which to draw senior management are finance and marketing. ?. Increase in quality means increase in cost. ?. Thinking that time, quality, cost are the worst mutuality exclusive, at best we can only choose two out of three. The following are the steps to barrier removal: I. Identify barrier. As seen above some of these barriers may apply effecting progress. II. Place into categories. Related barriers and their systemic causes may now be analyzed. Categorization may be facilitated by using either cause-effect diagrams or quality function deployment. III. Establish priority. An objective process that is not influenced by management or hidden agenda must be developed. At this stage barriers are judged on their validity in accordance with the severity of the problem. IV. Problem solve. This means more than symptoms removal. Sick organizations do not recover for the long term if the symptoms are masked. It is vital to address the root of the problem. The elimination of one barrier may solve many problems for example poor communication between management and staff. Keep in mind that analyzing the problem should include estimates of resources required for it solution. V. Goals and strategies for resolution. Resolution of problems may entail goals over a period of months or years. Goals should be realistic and attainable with the given resources. Strategies ensure that goals can be accomplished. Bear in mind that numerical goals as such may not be what is required. Numerical goals may also limit the amount of growth, particularly in organizations used to working up to an average. 3.Communication Communication is the glue that binds all the techniques, practices, philosophies, and tools. Communication may be written, verbal, or nonverbal. Understanding and refining skills for each main type communication is an ongoing process for everyone. All forms of communication involve four elements: the sender, the receiver, the message, and the medium. The medium is the method of delivery, and can effect the message. It was said that the medium is the message, referring in part to the filtering effects that can happen to the message and how personality factors may influence our understanding (figure. 4). VI. Written Communication. Office memos and reports are the result of hundreds of hours (studies indicate anywhere from 21% to 70% of office workers? time is spent in manipulating written information) of work, and their final form should be worthy of spending some time to get words right. The use of white space and graphical elements such as charts and figures enhances the readability of any written piece. Given the vast amount of time spent on reading and creating memos, letters, proposals, and the like, the byword on written communication should be more is better, and the less is permanent (memos sent electronically, faxes, hand notes on the bottom of the letters, rather than typed, recorded reply) the better. VII. Verbal. Verbal communication takes place in many different settings, and the form of the communication will vary. One sort of vocabulary may be used to address shareholders and a different idiom may be used altogether when chatting with construction workers. The skills principally lacking in verbal communication are public speaking and small group interactions. Public speaking scares people to death. This fear may be overcome by training(organizing and practice), videotaping the presentation (to review latter), and practice(on small group to build confidence). Small group interactions are essential to buildup comfort and ease among the group. It will provide a sense of team work and it is vital to have small talk among the team. VIII. Nonverbal. Humans infer a great deal of information from nonverbal clues. This non verbal clues includes body language as well as things as dress for success. Psychologists believe that nonverbal clues lead to gut feels about how to interact with another person. Despite the similarities of nonverbal communication, there are cultural differences, and is probably most important to understand these, rather than reading individuals body language. It is easy to fall into the trap of overanalyzing nonverbal clues and infusing them with meaning, when, for example, someone may be hard of hearing or near/far-sighted rather than being inattentive (or too attentive). 4.Continuous Evaluation Feedback is essential to continuous improvement. How else would we know if our goals are being reached?. These feedback mechanisms may be simple oral or written reports, information systems, or complex automated statistical analyses integrated with our expert systems. The key is to receive the information in time to allow initiating corrective action. For example, in construction feedback from engineers, subcontractors and so forth can help us as managers to find new ways to reduce cost and schedule. Feedback may also help architects to find the best way to construct a building and therefore effecting the design. We also should understand and separate assessable causes from chance causes. Assessable causes have distinct reasons for there existence, while chance causes are those causes that we have no control over. 5.Continuous Improvement Unlike innovation, which require great resources, and no small amount of serendipity, continuous improvement is easier to manage and utilize everyone?s talent. Japanese companies have used this idea for some time, and call thisapproach kaizen. This idea fits hand in hand with team building approach. Kaizen and innovation are compared in figure 5 below. Figure 5. Improvement versus Innovation Continuous Improvement Innovation Effect long term and long lasting but undramatic. Shot term, but dramatic. PaceTime frame Small steps.Continuous and incremental. Big steps.Intermittent and nonincremental. Change InvolvementApproach Gradual and constant.Everybody.Collectivism, group efforts, systems approach. Abrupt and volatile.Select few champions.Rugged individualism, individual ideas and efforts. Mode Maintenance and improvement. Scrap and rebuild. Spark Conventional know-how and state of the art. Technological breakthroughs, new inventions, new theories. Practical requirements. Requires little investment but great effort to maintain it. Requires large investment but little effort to maintain it. Effort orientationEvaluation criteria People.Process and efforts for better results. Technology.Result for profit. Advantage Works well in slow-growth economy. Better suited to fast-growth economy. To reduce cost and time and increase productivity, in any industry, the focus must be projected on the process that produces the product. Improving the process in construction, for example, reduced or may eliminate costly change orders and therefore reduced complexity and time. Through inspection and analysis of the process, everyone shares a common learning experience and the accumulated knowledge and understanding of the process become the basis for improving it. Precepts of Quality Improvement ?. Quality leadership must begin with top management. ?. The most important aspect of quality is identifying the activities within the organization that effect quality. ?. Written procedure are one of the necessary communication media by which the management functions of directing and controlling are exercised. ?. One of the most critical activities in quality improvement is preparing a clear, concise description of the services to be acquired. ?. The cost, time, and effort devoted to evaluating and selecting suppliers must be commensurate with the importance of the goods and services to be procured. ?. Quality audits must determine the adequacy of, and compliance with, established policies, procedures, instructions, specifications, codes, standard and contractual requirements. Quality audits must also assess the effectiveness of their implementation. ?. The simple objective of most quality audits is to gather enough reliable data through inspectio n, observation, and inquiry to make reasonable assessment of the quality of the activity being audited. ?. the foundation of quality control is having timely and accurate information so that systems that are not capable of producing consistent quality can be identified and improved. ?. An effective quality cost program can help the management team to allocate strategic resources for improving quality and reducing costs. ?. Productivity, profit, and quality are the ultimate measure of success of the production system. 6.Customer/Vendor Relationship The hearing the voice of the customer has become a key phrase in the past few years. This would seem to be a obvious point but it?s not. After world war II, The United States was the only major country that did not have a devastated economic infrastructure. Therefore, it was able to produce items of any quality and sell them. Industries were internally driven and not customer driven. As the glob markets grow, new competitors with new technologies approached these markets providing better quality products and involving the customers. This approach worked miracles for these new industries and valuable lessons should be learned from this. Here are some strategies for improving customer and vendor relation: ?. Link organizational vision to customer satisfaction. ?. Reward suppliers. ?. Move to a single source. ?. Minimize the overall number of vendors. ?. Identify the internal and external customers. Identify end users and distributors. ?. Establish routine dialogue with customers. ?. Involve the customer in planning and development. Keep in mind that vendors must be qualified and have policies that are compatible with yours. Viewing these vendors as partners, rather than adversaries leads to the ability to implement successfully such cost-saving measures as just-in-time, whereby materials arrive as needed to the construction site. 7.Empowering The Worker Empowering the worker means enabling the worker to achieve his or her highest potential. For most American companies, this is new, and may be the most powerful and useful concept in quality management. Allowing and facilitating workers to achieve their highest potential may seem obvious or impossible, but in fact it is neither. Empowering requires turning the organizations chart upside down, recognizing that management is in a place to aid the worker in overcoming problems they encounter, not to place new roadblocks on the way. Empowering strategies may include: I. Ownership. A key strategy in empowering employees is to allow them ownership of tasking,project, or division. Ownership implies trust and requires a delegation of authority commensurate with the responsibility of the task. Ownership can also be granted to a team. Ownership also demands that the final resolution of the tasking be in the hands of the owner. II. Value all contributions. Whether or not we appreciate them, it is important to enhance self-esteem of the contributor to accept their contribution and evaluate it. III. Every one has a value. If they didn?t why would they be employed? Treat everyone with respect. All work has dignity to it. IV. Teams must own problem. Teams are a waste of time if management vetoes or substantially changes their recommendation. If management is unable to trust the recommendations that come from the team, then management fear rules, and will spiral to lower and lower productivity. V. Delegate authority to the lowest possible organizational level. Constantly ask: why should I do this? If you have hired competent people, let them do there job. No one knows about the job than the person directly involved with it. 8.Training The outcome of training is modified behavior. It may be enhanced interpersonal skills or specific manual skills, but there is a direct, identifiable modification. Training need not consist solely of traditional classroom instruction. Employees can train other employees very effectively. A company-wide curriculum should be developed that address the needs of each department. Courses should be just long enough to be effective. Anything over three or four days is unlikely to immediately be absorbed into daily work habits. Immediate reinforcement of the training is necessary to be effective. Bibliography 1. R. Stein, The Next Phase of Total Quality Management., Macel Dekker, Inc.,1994. 2. T. Cartin, Principles and Practices of TQM., ASQC Quality Press.,1993. 1. W. Schmidt and J. Finnigan, TQManager., Jossey-Bass Publishers., 1993. 1. B.Brocka and S. Brocka, Quality Management: Implementing The Best Ideas Of the Masters. Irwin, Inc.,1992. 2. H. Kerzner, Project Managment., Van Nostrand Reinhold.,1992. The Catholic University of America Total Quality Management In Construction Research Papers on Total Quality Management In ConstructionThe Project Managment Office SystemAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaDefinition of Export QuotasOpen Architechture a white paperBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalPETSTEL analysis of IndiaInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesTwilight of the UAW

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Collective Effort and Collective Liability Essay

Collective Effort and Collective Liability - Essay Example These intentional misuses of personal information are punishable whether they are carried out by hand, through the conventional postage system, or through electronic means (18 U.S.C. section 1028 (c).   Because the Identity Theft Act of 1998 was deemed an inadequate deterrent, Congress passed the Identity Theft Penalty Enhancement Act in 2004 in order to increase sentences for violators of the 1998 Act (18 U.S.C. 1028A).   Despite these new laws, and the enhanced punishments, identity theft continues to plague individuals (Lahey & Matejkovic, 2001), businesses (Beales, 2002; Collins, 2003), and even powerful and well-resourced governmental organizations (Identity Theft.   Internal Revenue Service, nd; Kahn & Roberds, 2005).   The irony is that the identity theft crime has many enemies, legislation in place to criminalize all acts associated with identity theft, enhanced punishment legislation, and yet the crime is increasing rather than decreasing; clearly, therefore, current responses are inadequate.   Even a cursory examination of the relevant data and statistics is sobering.   From a financial point of view, Collins notes that â€Å"Personal identity theft is a $100-billion perannum industry worldwide; however,†¦the cost of stolen business identities can be expected to be even greater† (2003).   The statistics are similarly disturbing in terms of the sheer number of individuals, businesses, and governmental organizations which have been victimized in some.... As a preliminary matter, identity theft is defined by federal statute. The Identity Theft Act defines identity theft as occurring whenever a person "knowingly and without lawful authority produces an identification document or a false identification document" (18 U.S.C. section 1028(a)(1), 1998) or otherwise possesses, transfers, uses, or creates an identification document or false identification document while knowing that any of these acts are unlawful. (18 U.S.C. sections1028 (a)(2)-(a)(7), 1998). These intentional misuses of personal information are punishable whether they are carried out by hand, through the conventional postage system, or through electronic means (18 U.S.C. section 1028 (c). Because the Identity Theft Act of 1998 was deemed an inadequate deterrent, Congress passed the Identity Theft Penalty Enhancement Act in 2004 in order to increase sentences for violators of the 1998 Act (18 U.S.C. 1028A). Despite these new laws, and the enhanced punishments, identity theft continues to plague individuals (Lahey & Matejkovic, 2001), businesses (Beales, 2002; Collins, 2003), and even powerful and well-resourced governmental organizations (Identity Theft. Internal Revenue Service, nd; Kahn & Roberds, 2005). The irony is that the identity theft crime has many enemies, legislation in place to criminalize all acts associated with identity theft, enhanced punishment legislation, and yet the crime is increasing rather than decreasing; clearly, therefore, current responses are inadequate. Even a cursory examination of the relevant data and statistics is sobering. From a financial point of view, Collins notes that

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

America Identity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

America Identity - Essay Example   This essay focuses on the evolving nature of the American identity as well as discussing immigration issues, racial equality, diversity, assessing the nation’s failures and successes in these fields. While pursuing my undergraduate level, we were asked by our lecture if we were second generation Americans. The term â€Å"second generation Americans† had never occurred to me in my previous experiences, let alone connect with my individuality before, but it certainly applied to me (Foundation Kelley, 1). I learnt that, apart from out of roughly thirty students in my class only two of us were second generation Americans. The rest of the students were like the parental side of my family. A lot of American people perceive that the American creed as the key of American identity. The American Creed outlines the representation of the principles of liberty, equality, identity, representative government, and private property. Individuality is a complicated matter, particularly because it is such a flawed theory (Foundation Kelley, 1). Personal identities are always fluctuating and unstable as we have past familiarities and mirror upon our past and present circumstances. We do different individualities around different people and it becomes unbearable to agree. For instance, my name varies subject to what the crowd of people I am with. When am with my college friends, they know me with a different name from my High School and work friends. The most critical aspect with regard to my American identity is the fact that, my founding parents were immigrants. However, this has constantly made me feel more American. My founding parents move here from their place of origin have always made the melting pot more factual to me. I’m confident that if they had been immigrants to somewhere else, I would be a much different person compared to now. Growing up hearing, listening and knowing another language

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Heroin Crisis Center Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Heroin Crisis Center - Essay Example Long Island has recently seen an increase in heroin use that has ended the lives of some teenagers due to overdose (Cuadra-Fernandez). The options for the addict and the non-addict user seem to be limited to either continuing use or making the huge step in entering rehab. This proposal intends to show that an intermediary facility that can help during times of crisis and will provide a conduit for the user towards rehabilitation without forcing them into treatment. Through offering services that address the needs of the user in order to keep them alive, it is hoped that eventually they will enter rehabilitation and end their addictive behaviors before it results in death. Heroin is a drug that is extracted from poppies, making it a lucrative crop drug for many nations without other resources. There are three forms of the drug, one being a white powder, the other being a brown powder, and the last being a black, sticky product that is referred to as ‘black tar’. Heroin is often diluted with substances that look similar to the type of product that is being sold, such as adding powdered milk to white powder to extend its volume. Sometimes, however, a substance that is toxic such as strychnine will be found in the drug, increasing the harmful effects and possibly leading to a more assured death through drug overdose (Cuadra-Fernandez). The drug is so powerful that anytime an addict is not on heroin, they are suffering from withdrawal, so any day that is spent without the drug is painful and miserable for the user (Rasmussen and Benson 47). According to Moraes, there are two terms that refer to the type of use that a user of heroin will fall into. A ‘chipper’ is an occasional user who uses the drug recreationally and with an addiction that requires a focused attention to the drug. A ‘junkie’ is someone who cannot go without the drug and has behaviors that can be described as associated with addiction. Stephens discusses types o f heroin users and labels them either addicts or the concerned non-addicts. Concerned non-addicts are in jeopardy of becoming an addict and have a concern towards that regard. Non-concerned non-addicts have no fear that they will become addicts. In comparing the types of users, the addict typically is no longer in mainstream life, their lifestyle is more deviant, they are likely to be unemployed, and have a higher rate of other criminal activity to support their habit. The concerned non-addict tend to still be â€Å"bonded to conventional activities. They were more likely to be high school graduates, avoided engaging in illegal activities, and expressed concern about the consequences of heroin use on their job and families’ (Stephans 61). Beyond the influences the use of heroin in its pharmacological effects, are the medical issues that can come from the use of the drug. Because the drug is often administered through hypodermic needle, the risks of blood pathogens being tran smitted are very high. Diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis C and Hepatitis B can be a very real outcome to drug use (Cuadra-Fernandez). As well, the social consequences can be higher than expected, especially for a teenager who is unprepared for the permanence that can result when the drug use leads to arrest, overdose, or discovery which will all lead to the behavior being revealed to family and friends, thus placing them in a position of being somewhat of an outcast. The group that the crisis center that is proposed in this paper would address would be primarily made up of ’chippers’ and concerned non-addicts, their use not yet putting them into the downward social and physical spiral that an addict will experience. While the center would certainly